Friday, March 13, 2020
Mephisto - Roman Einer Karriere Klaus Mann: "ÃâÃÅ¾Mephisto "ÃâÃâ Roman einer Karriere" 1. Entstehungsgeschichte 1.1 Der Autor Klaus Heinrich Thomas Mann wurde am 18. November 1906 als ÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤ltester Sohn von Thomas und Katja Mann geboren. Seine Geschwister waren Erika, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth und Michael, die alle spÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤ter literarisch tÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤tig wurden. Um den Werdegang Klaus Manns besser verstehen zu kÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¶nnen ist es wichtig sich deutlich zu machen, dass sowohl sein Vater als auch sein Onkel bedeutende und erfolgreiche Schriftsteller ihrer Zeit waren. Dies sollte noch einen groÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃÅ¸en Einfluss auf sein spÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤teres Leben haben. Zuerst verlebte Klaus Mann allerdings eine recht glÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¼ckliche Kindheit, die von vielfachen Orts - und vor allem Schulwechseln geprÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤gt war. Sein Potential wurde allerdings bereits frÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¼h erkannt: So ÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¤uÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃÅ¸erte sich 1922 Paul Geheeb, Leiter des Internats SchloÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃÅ¸ Salem in einen Brief an Katja Mann: "ÃâÃÅ¾Bei ihrem Sohn handelt es sich um einen ungewÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¶hnlich begabten und fein veranlagten Jungen, von dem aber keineswegs sicher steht, wohin seine Begabung ihn fÃÆ'ÃÆ'ÃâÃ ¼hren wird."Deutsch: Mann, Klaus: Der fromme Tanz. Das Abenteu...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Authoritarian Leadership Style against the Democratic One - Essay Example When I attended a particular seminar, the speaker requested the audience to create a group which is composed of ten (10) members. There were five (5) groups created at that time. The speaker, then, instructed all groups to present a play about a particular social problem. Since one of the members of our group was a member of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s theater guild, we then chose her to be our leader. Later on, we talked about the conduct of the play. During our practice, I did not expect the girl to be authoritative. She was not entertaining the comments and suggestions of the other group members. She wanted all of us to obey her commands and wishes as to the playÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct. Some of the group members were passive of her attitude but I and the rest were infuriated. I actually confronted the girl and told her to stop being bossy since the success of the play ultimately depends upon all our efforts. Nevertheless, the girl did not listen to my advice. As a result, our group presented a very bad performance. Robert Greenleaf actually considers being authoritative as a destructive leadership behavior (as cited in Schyns, & Hansbrough, 2010, p. x). The destructive character that is attached to this kind of conduct connotes that it is, in fact, bad and undesirable. Greenleaf cites that self-interest is the primary reason for the occurrence of this behavior (as cited in Schyns, & Hansbrough, 2010, p. x). According to him, a leader who is driven by self-interest aims to benefit himself or herself in every group endeavor at the expense of his or her followers, whose interest and needs are either disregarded or trampled upon (Greenleaf, as cited in Schyns, & Hansbrough, 2010, p. x). This kind of leader destroys the coordination and potency of the group. He or she will also emotionally strain his or her followers (Tepper, as cited in Schyns, & Hansbrough, 2010, p. x). This finding is in accord with what I had experienced.
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Fictional story - Essay Example Since he looked hopeless and pathetic, the Holmes were happy that he could help them with some homework. They hoped to keep him so that they could also send him for errands and leave them at home looking after the kids. Ã¢â¬Å"How much will you be paying me for the responsibilities?Ã¢â¬ asked John, Ã¢â¬Å"we do not have to pay you, that will compensate for the accommodation and food that we will be giving you.Ã¢â¬ Upon hearing this, John was annoyed. He started complaining and even almost insulted the Holmes for their lack of concern for him. It took the intervention of Julieta, a woman who personally knew John in the village. Since he had no other place to go, he had to accept the deal with the Holmes. Life at the Holmes was a bit challenging. He was forced to wake up early and slept late. Although he did not spend not even a cent of his savings, he did not earn anything except food and accommodation benefit. This infuriated John and made him confront the Holmes on the second day, Ã¢â¬Å"This is too unfair! I have to leave you alone with your pathetic offers.Ã¢â¬ John had started imagining that everything would work out well for him and that he no longer needed HolmesÃ¢â¬â¢ help. He even accused the Holmes of misusing him and vowed to sue them by the end of the week. This is despite the fact that he had personally agreed to the initial deal of staying with them and doing what the family does for no pay. Outside the Holmes, life was not as he had expected. It reminded him of his school days when he solely depended on his peers. When he was in class five, he had entered into a peer gang that taught him many Ã¢â¬ËskillsÃ¢â¬â¢ including what he referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëtaking what others had misplaced.Ã¢â¬â¢ The only thing that kept John away from stealing is the memory of his late father who had died while John was twelve. John had not seen his father since birth and only spent three months with him before his death. As his mother had earlier narrated to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Enhancing IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks Essay Abstract Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless network is a very important standard especially today that wireless technologies are very popular due to its effectiveness and usefulness. However, the standard supports the use of omni-directional antenna which radiates and receives signals in all directions that does not support spatial reuse and does not have high capacity and gain. Research studies show the benefits and advantages of using directional antennas instead of omni-directional antenna in wireless networks. Spatial reuse and high capacity are both very important especially today that the wireless networks are increasingly deployed due to the demand and needs of the users. But, as mentioned, IEEE 802.11 supports the utilisation of omni-directional antenna and not of directional antenna, thus to be able for directional antenna to be at its optimal use, the IEEE 802.11 protocols must be amended to be able to address problems associated with the use of directional antenna. Directional antenna or directivity of an antenna can be created using antenna elements that are combined to form an array. Smart antennas which are becoming popular today have achieved directivity due to the techniques employs with it. Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Due to technological development in data and telecommunications during the past years, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) of the United States developed standards and guidelines to ensure orderly transfer of information between two or more data communication systems using different equipment with different needs. Standards and protocols are useful in ensuring that equipments such as computers, mobile phones, and communication devices from different manufacturers and providers have established compatibility and interoperability. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, due to rapid technological development and introduction of newer technologies brought about by the increasing demands and needs of users, some standards are needed to be enhanced and improved. This is because as newer technologies are created, more and more data are needed to be transmitted requiring more capacity for the existing infrastructures. If standards and protocols are not improved, existing communication infrastructures will only have limited capacity causing serious problems such as interference and slow speed. People nowadays always demand for real-time communication of various data such as video, audio, pictures and multimedia. Background Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the most innovative technologies today has been the wireless communication technology. Wireless technology encompasses the use of television and radio, mobile phones, wireless internet connection and computing system which are all very important for communication needs, eliminating the need for cables and wires and making possible the communication even in the remotest areas as along as there is available signal. WLANs increased the degree of mobility which are not possible using the conventional local area networks. In mobile phone communication alone, development has been tremendous that from analogue to GSM, now comes the 3G and 4G mobile systems. In the internet technology, connections have developed from ISDN to dial-up to DSL and now Wireless LAN which is very popular today. Communication between computers and mobile phones are also now possible with the GPRS technology. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These technologies are primarily intended for easy and real-time communication brought about by fast-paced lifestyle of people and also because of globalization. Mobile data and communications have become important for personal, professional, and business use. Because there are so many manufacturers and service providers from different locations, and also because of the popularity of these technologies, the IEEE developed the IEEE 802.11 which is a standard particularly intended for Wireless Local Area Networks. However, as WLAN experienced development and are improved, the IEEE 802.11 is also needed to be enhanced to be able for WLANs to be at their optimum performance. Additionally, because of the many uses and demands for WLAN, it has been increasing deployed causing interference between transmissions. Interference in data communications is a serious problem for it caused delay of transmission and alterations or distortion of signals that caused unreliable, unclear and error in messages received. The use of directional antenna is a well known method to reduce interference and to increase the range and capacity of wireless networks (Zhu et al, 2005). However, the IEEE 802.11 is not designed for the use of directional antennas. This project which is focused on the enhancement of the IEEE 802.11 using directional antennas and multiple receivers is important to be able to determine in-depth what improvement and advantages can directional antennas and multi-receivers can contribute to the current IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks standard. Literature Review Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This part of this proposal reviews literatures that describe the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard in details to be able to determine the needs for the enhancement of the standard. The literature review also provides earlier research about the functions and advantages of directional antennas This review is a brief discussion providing an overview of the detailed review of literatures that will be provided in the chapters of the research study. 3.1. The IEEE 802.11 Wireless Network Standard Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Aside from promoting interoperability, the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless network was created to deliver services that were previously found only in wired networks but have been found out to be possible using wireless networks; to achieve high throughput; for highly reliable data delivery; and for continuous network connection (Ergen, 2002). As a standard, the IEEE 802.11 established the network architecture, components, type of equipments and set of services offered that must be complied with by wireless network administrators and providers. These are also known as the physical layer and that IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard provides a number of physical layer options in terms of data rates, modulation types and spreading spectrum techniques (Ergen, 2002). This means that the medium, the path that the signal transmitted and received via the WLAN, the range, location, frequency to be used and the type of antenna to be used are all determined by the IEEE 802.11 standard. IEEE 802.11 does not only specify the physical layer characteristics but also the link layer protocol for medium access in broadcast channels (Dham, 2003). The medium access control protocol is designed for the specified physical layer characteristics thus any changes made in the physical layer also requires significant alterations in the MAC protocol. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The MAC layer of the standard defines two different access modes: the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and the Point Coordination Function (PCF) (Xu Saadawi, 2003). DCF is a mechanism which is a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. The standard allows the use of a basic access method or an optional handshake which is done by exchanging Request to Send (RTS) and Clear to Send (CTS) messages which are also the frame sent from the source to the destination and an acknowledgement from the destination that the frame was received correctly (Erger, 2005). These frames or control packets contain the proposed duration of data transmission while nodes or stations within the vicinity of communicating nodes overhear either of these control packets and suspend transmission for this proposed duration (Choudhury et al, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This process unable the nodes or devices to communicate directly with all other devices and for a wireless device to be able to transmit and receive at the same time thus the IEEE 802.11 MAC implements a network allocation vector (NAV) which is a value that indicates to a station the amount of time that remains before the medium becomes available (Erger, 2005).Ã With this standard, directional antenna is obviously not utilised because in using directional antennas, it is possible to carry out multiple transmissions in the same neighbourhood provided that the beamwidth of the directional transmissions is not very large (Choudhury et al, 2002). 3.2. The Directional Antenna Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã An antenna is one or more electrical conductors of a specific length that transmits radio waves generated by a transmitter or that collects radio waves at the receiver (Frenzel, 1994). It is a basic component of every wireless networks, thus it must be chosen carefully depending on how it will be used. WLAN commonly used omni-directional antenna which allows for transmission and reception of messages in any direction (Frenzel, 1994) which is commonly used in wireless internet connections and wireless telecommunications. However, because the transmitted signal is exposed in any direction, interference with other signal has been a problem. In search for the solution with the problem of interference, various research (Dham, 2003; Zhu et al, 2005; Choudhury et al, 2002) have been focused on the use of directional antenna in WLANs. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The primary advantage of directional antenna is that it eliminates interference from other signals being received from all directions except the direction of the desired signal (Frenzel, 1994). It was found out that the use of directional antenna for transmission gives the highest capacity, allows spectrum reuse, and provides range extension (Zhu et al, 2005). At the receiver, the antenna is pointed directly at the station to be received thus rejecting signals from transmitters in all other directions (Frenzel, 1994). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another advantage of directional antenna over omni-directional is that there is greater efficiency of power transmission while when omni-directional antenna is used at the transmitter side the transmitted power goes off in all directions wasting a significant amount of power (Frenzel, 1994). It is argued that all messages should be sent in directional mode to take advantage of this gain (Zhu et al, 2005). Choudhury et al (2002) conducted a study and proposed a protocol that exploits the benefits of using directional antenna namely spatial reuse and higher transmission range. On the other hand, the use of directional antenna also poses some problems such as higher collision probability. That is, as space is segmented and the carrier is reused with directional antennas, the amount of MAC information required for conflict-free transmission increases (Zhu et al, 2005). Because the current IEEE 802.11 standard does not support spatial reuse, several problems may occur when directional antennas are used without changing the modifying the existing protocol. Collision occurs due to the deafness of the nodes as these nodes are immersed in only one direction. And because of this deafness, the transmitting nodes will send RTS packets repeatedly which is a waste of bandwidth (Zhu et al, 2005). The research study conducted by Zhu et al (2005) focused on solving the problems caused by the spatial reuse which is higher collision probability and proposed a protocol called sectorised 802.11 MAC protocol. These two studies along with the other studies serve as the framework of this research. To create an antenna with directivity and gain, two or more antenna elements are combined to form what is known as an array (Frenzel, 1994). Antenna array has the capability of spatial signal separation and could radiate frequency energy towards a desired receiver with narrow beamwidth and null towards an interfering terminal to reduce the negative impact of multi-path and co-channel interference (Zhou, 2006). Phased array antenna systems are an example of an array. Phased array antennas consist of an array of antenna elements connected by a feeder or adder network arranged so that their individual signals combine to provide maximum gain in one direction while minimising it in other directions (Dham, 2003). There is also what is called smart antenna which is consist of multiple antenna elements arranged in a special configuration and connected through complex weights (Zhou, 2006). Smart antenna Switched beam and adaptive array antenna are the two major categories of smart antenna. Switched beam is the simplest smart antenna with a number of fixed beams in predetermined directions at the antenna site (Zhou, 2006). Adaptive array on the other hand uses a complex signal processing algorithm to continuously detect multi-path and interference among desired signal (Zhou, 2006). The studies about the applications of smart antennas in wireless networks are also related and will be useful in the completion of this research study.Ã Zhou (2006) added that a smart antenna can be applied to all current major wireless protocols and industrial standards to achieve higher system capacity, larger network coverage and higher data rate thus smart antenna must be further investigated to determine what it can contribute to the enhancement of IEEE 802.11 with directional antennas. Aims and Objectives Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conducting any research, it is important that definite sets of objectives are present.Ã These objectives will serve as the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s guide in conducting the data gathering, data analysis and conclusion formulation. The primary objective of the research is to provide a protocol designed for the utilisation of directional antennas in wireless local area networks. Such protocol is proposed to be used in the deployment of WLAN using directional antennas thus it includes some amendments on the original standards, architecture, and physical layer. However, this general aim is an umbrella objective that would dictate the general path that the research will take. Within this umbrella objective are the specific aims of the research that will allow the researcher to touch the important aspects of the topic. These specific aims are the following: To identify the problems associated with the current protocols to determine the necessary adjustments or enhancement that are needed to be done; To determine the characteristics of directional antennas and what it can contribute to improve the capabilities of the wireless local area networks; To evaluate the advantages of having multiple receivers in wireless local area networks; To investigate on the differences of the current protocol and the proposed protocol and determine the limitations of the latter; and To test the effectiveness of the proposed standard. Intellectual Challenge Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The most intellectual challenge on this research is the proposal itself. The IEEE 802.11 is developed by reliable engineers and to propose an enhancement for this standard is a big challenge thus the research study should be based on reliable data. The proposed protocol should also be tested on using a prototype and accurate calculations to ensure that the outcome of the studies is viable. Research Program 6.1 Research Methodology The method of collecting data for the dissertation will be composed of two methodologies. The first methodology is review of related literature or secondary sources.Ã Reviewing earlier studies and other related literature would allow the researcher to become familiar with the already accepted theories and statements pertaining to the topic. The sources should be from technical books, journals, earlier theses and published articles technical organisations such as the IEEE. The second methodology would be surveys and personal interviews. Technical professionals like engineers and technicians from different communication network companies and Internet service providers (ISP) will be surveyed using questionnaires that include questions that will determine the problems encountered with WLAN particularly with the use of the antennas they currently utilise, the solutions they are implementing and the improvement they would like to suggest and impose with the current standards. It is important that the views of these people be collected since they are the ones who are immersed in the realities of the WLAN conditions. They will be able to provide insights that will help the researcher in evaluating the current IEEE standard. This study will be using the descriptive research method where the general part of the paper will be dedicated to the description of the subject in question. Descriptive research intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994). It is also concerned with relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. In addition, such approach tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994). The use of the descriptive method also suggests that the research will be focusing on obtaining qualitative data. Qualitative research is an umbrella that refers to various research traditions and strategies. The research will be carried out systematically. First, the researcher needs to review previous literature about the topic. This will allow the research the researcher to become familiar with what is already known about the topic. This will also allow the researcher to formulate the appropriate questionnaire that will be able to extract the most useful data. After the questionnaires have been completed, the researcher will have to tally the results and compare it with the findings of previous studies. If the finding of the research is the same as the findings of previous studies then the research can be supported by the findings of previous studies. On the other hand, if the findings of the research do not agree with past studies then the researcher must look back on previous studies to check if the findings of the studies are supported by other findings. This will ensure that the results of the research are not isolated and have been tested by other researches. 6.2 Schedule The Gantt chart below shows the schedule of activities involved in conducting the research study. Activity Date 1st Month 2nd Month 3rd Month 4th Month Data Gathering/Survey, Personal Interview Ã Ã Ã Ã Review of earlier studies and related literature/ Analysis of data collected Ã Ã Ã Ã Writing of the First Draft Ã Ã Ã Ã Development, Testing, Analysis, Evaluation and Documentation Ã Ã Ã Ã Revision of the study Ã Ã Ã Ã Formulation of the conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Completion of Writing Ã Ã Ã Ã Printing and binding of documents Ã Ã Ã Ã Submission Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Deliverables Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The research study will be organised as follows: A chapter describing the IEEE 802.11 A chapter describing the antenna used in WLAN and the problems using non-directional antennas A chapter describing the analysis of the problems A chapter that presents the data collected and the analyses of those data A chapter for the proposed solutions and the methods for testing the solutions A chapter that serves as documentations of the testing, calculations involved and evaluation of the proposed solutions Resources Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As already mentioned, this research study is highly technical nature thus resources must be from reliable sources such as the IEEE itself that developed the standard that will be enhanced and the Association for Computing Machinery which is an organisation that publishes reliable sources about computing and related technology. ACM also has a digital library where various literatures can be accessed. The World Wide Web is also be used as a source where different latest articles and journals can be found. University and public libraries will also be used where books that discuss the basic concepts of the subject and topics involved can be found. The researcher will need the cooperation of technical professionals, technicians and engineers whose personal knowledge will be needed as they answer the survey questionnaires. The researcher will also need to collaborate with an ISP or a network company to test the proposed standard, determining its effectiveness as well as its shortcomings. References: Choudhury, R., Yang, X., Ramanathan, R., and Vaidya, N. (2002) Using Directional Antennas for Medium Access Control in Ad Hoc Networks, MOBICOMÃ¢â¬â¢02, ACM: Georgia, USA Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Dham, Vikram (2003) Link Establishment in Ad Hoc Networks Using Smart Antennas Thesis in Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University retrieved online on December 13, 2006 http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05072003-180228/unrestricted/etd.pdf Erger, Mustafa (2002) IEEE 802.11 Tutorial, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California Berkeley, Retrieved online on Dec. 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~ergen/docs/ieee.pdf Frenzel, Louis (1994) Communication Electronics 2nd edition, Glencoe Macmillan/McGraw-Hill: Singapore Xu, Shugong Saadawi, Tarek (2003) Does IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol Work Well in Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks? Dept. of Electrical Engineering, City University of New York retrieved online on December 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://academic.csuohio.edu/yuc/mobile03/0415-xu.pdf Ã Zhu, Chenxi, Nadeem, Tamer and Agre, Jonathan (2005) Enhancing 802.11 Wireless Networks with Directional Antenna and Multiple Receivers, Fujitsu Laboratories of America, retrieved online on December 13, 2006 http://www.flacp.fujitsulabs.com/TM-PCR-TM-21.pdf Zhou, Hao (2006) The Improvements in Ad Hoc Routing and Network Performance with Directional Antennas, Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Retrieved online on December 13, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://lib.tkk.fi/Dipl/2006/urn007316.pdf
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Camera Phones and Invasion of Privacy Ã Ã¢â¬Å"New technology hasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.placed all of us in an electronic fishbowl in which our habits, tastes and activities are watched and recorded.Ã¢â¬ as told by Simson Garfinkel (Ojeda). In the 21st century it is easy to awe people with new technology. Take two popular gadgets, merge them into a single point-and-click device, and then watch the world go nuts over it. This is a fact that will never change. Technology in this world is growing every day and there are products being discovered every moment to satisfy the needs of the consumer or make their living more luxurious. Camera mobile phones are only a recent invention but they sure have the world going gaga over them already. Technology threatens privacy, but who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like technology? The teenagers of this generation are crazy behind new technologies of any kind such as a good music system for their rooms or good mobile phones with many features. Any such products within their reach will be in their hands in no time. All of these things are good, but in a way they are dangerous and threaten privacy. For instance if we do have a music system with a lot of wattage pumping out of it, the neighbor will surely come running after you because it threatens his or her privacy. In the same way, the mobile phones also have so many features; that some or the other feature might not be safe to use for the privacy of the public like a phone with an integrated digital camera. Although concept of introducing a digital camera in a mobile phone is a recent discovery, people today enjoy the luxury of this concept day in and day out all over the world. It may seem that a camera phone would be no different than having a cell phone and a camera, but in truth, ... ... crackdown on camera phones.Ã¢â¬ BBC News. 20 July 2004. 16 November 2004 . * Batista, Elisa.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"New Privacy Menace: Cell Phones?Ã¢â¬ Wired News. 17 February 2003.Ã 16 November 2004 .Ã * Belson, Ken. Ã¢â¬Å"When Etiquette Isn't Enough, a Cell phone Cone of Silence.Ã¢â¬ New York Times. 7 November 2004:page 2. Week In Review Desk.Ã * Hamilton, Anita. Ã¢â¬Å"CAMERA PHONES.Ã¢â¬ Time. 2003. 16 November 2004 .Ã * Harvey, Fiona. Ã¢â¬Å"Camera Phones, Privacy Concerns Not Clicking.Ã¢â¬ Los Angeles Times. 3 November 2003:A19. Business. * Napolitano, Jo. Ã¢â¬Å" Hold It Right There, And Drop That Camera.Ã¢â¬ New York Times. 11 December 2003:Circuits.Ã * Ojeda, Auriana. Civil Liberties Text. Green heaven Press, 2004.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The family is the major social unit for emotional development in adolescents. The family is an integral social system, held together by strong bonds of affection and caring; at the same time, family members exercise control, approval, and dissent for each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions (Husain & Catwell 1992). As part of this interaction, every family has a structure, whether dysfunctional or functional, chaotic or rigid. This family organization helps it to achieve goals within a developmental time frame and to survive as a unit. Of all the changes in family life during the 20th century, perhaps the most dramatic and the most far-reaching in its implications-was the increase in the rate of divorce. The increase in marital dissolution has had major implications for the settings in which children are nurtured and socialized. The definition of dysfunctional family, however, differs widely among the studies, comprising more general definitions of negative rearing practices and altered family dynamics and specific and narrow criteria of family transition, socio-economic status and unhappy marriage. II. There are children growing up in situations where the interactions between family members are far from healthy. The dynamics of a dysfunctional family can range from the very bizarre to the sublimely subtle. Children who are developing both physically and psychologically are misfits. The sad part of this syndrome is that the children have very little say as to what goes into the formation of their own personalities. They have to play with the hand that is dealt. Too often society waits `until children have many years of physical or psychological abuse before trying to intervene. Once these children begin to manifest their dysfunctional behaviors, it is often too late or extremely difficult to turn them around. The key players in a dysfunctional family are, of course, the parents or parent. Dysfunctional parents come in all sizes and shapes, with the most obvious being the alcoholic, the abuser, and the mentally disturbed. There is, however, a more subtle level of dysfunction in families (Husain & Catwell 1992). Overprotective parents not only stifle the decision-making process with this kind of behavior, they are constantly making their children feel less than whole. Parents who always make decisions for their children-from deciding when they get up in the morning or when it is time for the bath-are creating individuals who rely on other to make their decisions-creating followers instead of leaders. In families where dysfunctional rules are rigidly adhered to, individual development and expression is discouraged. Children in these families may reach young adulthood less prepared to function in intimate relationships such as close friendships, dating and marriage. The quality of these premarital relationships contributes to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to marry, and strongly predict marital satisfaction (Amato & Sobolewski 2001). In families where highly dysfunctional rules have promoted unhealthy family process, future relationships may be negatively influenced. A considerable amount of money is being spent on the drug problem, but most of the money is going into law enforcement, incarceration, and rehabilitation programs. These are important areas that need funding; however, there seems to be little emphasis on prevention. If we could raise a generation of children who were psychologically healthy, who respected themselves, and had high self-esteem, they would have no desire to engage in self-destructive behavior. It is simple economics-supply and demand-if we do not demand or desire drugs and alcohol, then the profit motive erodes and suppliers will disappear. Even if we took drugs and alcohol off the streets, we would still have that segment of our population that is dysfunctional. These children are simply the products of their environment. If we are to change the way they view themselves and life, we must provide them with a healthy environment in which to grow and learn. ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ time parents and guardians are held accountable for the behaviors of children (Amato 2000). Parents, who do not show a reasonable amount of love, respect, and discipline toward their children should be identified and be made to assume some of the consequences of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors. III. It is estimated that over seven million American adolescents-one in four-are extremely vulnerable to multiple high-risk behaviors and school failure while another seven million are at moderate risk (Amato 2000). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, adolescents are apt to become involved with damaging behaviors, particularly those associated with alcohol, drugs, sexual activity, sexually transmitted disease, and pregnancy. An authoritarian power structure is one in which parents impose their values upon their adolescent children. These children see the adults in the family as demanding and restrictive. Adolescents frequently have no alternative but to break the rules. Even as the adolescent grows older, authoritarian parents have difficulty renegotiating outdated rules. Individuals with divorced parents are at increase risk of experiencing psychological problems in adulthood. Although good reasons exit for assuming that the quality of parent-child ties mediates some of the long-term negative effects of parental divorce (Jekielek 1998). Unfortunately, along with these pressures, many young people lack guidance and support. The path to adulthood has been described as one of isolation. During adolescence, exploratory behavior patterns emerge. Many of these behaviors carry high risks and have resulted in an unprecedented number of alcohol-related accidents and school dropouts. The need to develop self-esteem and inquiring minds among our youth has never been more necessary. It is our belief that every youth in our nation, poor or rich, advantaged or disadvantaged, should have the opportunity to achieve success, not just minimum competence. This is the challenge to our society as a whole-our educational, community and social-support systems. However, it also is direct challenges to individuals to keep families maximize their potential. Unfortunately, many families are unable to cope with the problems faced by adolescents. Many adolescents are growing into adulthood alienated from others, and with low expectations of themselves. There is greater likelihood that they will become unhealthy, addicted, violent, and chronically poor (Amato & Sobolewski 2001). Equally disturbing is that adolescents from the more affluent communities are displaying similar problems. On the other hand, less advantaged families, in struggling to make a living, do not have the time to build family relationships. In a time of great change, many parents are confused about their roles and relationships and are less aware of the new temptations faced by their adolescents (Jekielek 1998). IV. Marital dissolution is a process that begins before physical separation and continues after the marriage is legally ended. These stressful circumstances are likely to impact negatively on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological adjustment. Consequently, the relatively high level of psychological distress among adult children who grew up in divorced families may represent a simple continuation of emotional problems that began in childhood. Parental divorce negatively affects the quality and stability of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intimate relationships in adulthood. The risk of marital disruption is higher for those who experienced parental divorce as children. Our culture presently provides largely negative role models for the divorcing family. Language for divorced families lacks the capacity to derail a present relational system except in terms of a past relationship. The dramatic role transactions and systematic reorganization necessitated by divorce puts stress on the whole family. This can bring on critical family dysfunction in all the major transitions. A dysfunctional family is defined as one in which the emotional needs of its members are not meet (Husain & Catwell 1992). It is assumed that this emotional abandonment has a deleterious effect on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The explication of the various losses experienced by children from these families is common. These losses include, but are not limited to, the loss of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, the loss of a relationship with oneself, the loss of security, and the loss of freedom. The loss of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, however, is simply indicative of a second and more significant loss, that of a nurturant parental figure (Amato 2000). Rather than missing something they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have, this loss is a longing for; and missing, an idealized and fantasy parent. Although parents in dysfunctional homes are physically present, they are emotionally absent, and therefore they are unavailable to function as nurturant parents. Unlike a child who experiences the actual death of a parent, who eventually finds a substitute parental figure, a child in dysfunctional home has no such substitutes. To compensate for this parentless home, children in dysfunctional homes may adaptively develop a fantasy parent, a good and nurturant parent, much like the invisible fantasy companion that so many young children create and enjoy. This fantasy parent is perhaps based on television characters or on characteristics of the parents of their peers. V. During the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s adolescence, parentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision-making becomes even more difficult due to the complexity of such issues as discipline, schooling, and intimacy. The adolescents are constantly very vesting changes in the rules and in the process parents may disagree with each other. Adolescents are adept at recognizing this ambivalence and may play one parent against the other. Most of the problems seen in dysfunctional families with adolescents also occur in normal families; however the rate of dysfunction is much higher in families that have maladaptive methods of solving problems. In fact, in many dysfunctional families adolescence related issues are a continuation of prior parental difficulties. However, an implicit goal for every family, even a very unhealthy one, is the growth and preservation of its members. The familyÃ¢â¬â¢s parameters undergo continuous evaluation as the adolescent goes through a period of change-physiological, cognitive, emotional or behavioral. This period of change necessitates a series of psychosocial adjustments within the family, the major one focusing on the adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s primary developmental task of becoming independent from parents. References: Amato, P. (2000). Consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family. Vol. 62 No. 4 Nov. 2000 pp. 1269-1287. Amato, P. & Sobolewski, J. (2001). The effects of divorce and marital discord on adult childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological well-being. American Sociological Review. Vol. 66 No. 6 Dec 2001, pp. 900-921. Husain, S. & Catwell, D. (1992). Fundamentals of child and adolescent psychopathology. Washignton, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Jekielek, S. (1998). Parental conflict, marital disruption and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional well-being. Social Forces. Vol. 76 No. 3 Marc
Monday, January 6, 2020
Bill Gates Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955. Gates and his two sisters grew up in Seattle. Their father, William H. Gates II, is a Seattle attorney. His late mother, Mary Gates, was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent and chairwoman of United Way International. Bill Gates came from a very involved background dealing with politics and in the business industry. So he was pretty educated in the world as a young child. He also spent most of his time reading and learning about Business Industry which is what he liked. Bill went to Lakeside School for seventh grade at the age of 12. It was a very strict privates boys school. At first he seemed uncomfortable but eventually he found some friends that had some ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Bill had this belief that the personal computer would blow up and be in every home. Gates had these ideas of unlimited expansion and always creating new things. Bill gates vision regarding the computing world were built around Microsoft and software management. With Gates leadership MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to advance and improve software technology and to make it easier, more cost effective for home users. First computers ran on Dos. Bill had intentions on creating MS-Dos. He figured one day that MS-Dos would replace Dos. Also Microsoft created Excel, Microsoft Word, Access, ect. These programs are used by at least 50% of the PCÃ¢â¬â¢s in the world. As I said earlier Bill Gates left college to start in his computer future with Microsoft. He has showed his devotion and had work to them for 25 years (1975-xxxx) He now is Chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation, the leading provider for personal computers. So by sticking with the company he is now worth nearly $6.1 billion dollars. He is also very hard working with his job. With all the money and yachts and things he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much time to use them. He now has a wife, Melinda French, and two kids. The sonÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Rory John and the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Jennifer Katharine. So with his family and business he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much time for himself. He spends most of his time in meetings because he still has to at the head of the class. Most ofShow MoreRelatedBill Gates1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBill Gates and His Computer Empire Just past 9 PM on October 28, 1955, the man who would revolutionize the computer industry as we know it, was born. The son of Bill Jr. and Mary Gates was named William Henry Gates III. The computer super-genius was soon to take his place in history. Within the last fifteen years the company that he and Paul Allan started, Microsoft, has become the largest software corporation in the computer industry. What is Bill Gates background, and how did he preserve hisRead MoreBill Gates998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBill Gates When one thinks of computer software, one must think of Microsoft. 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